Native American Actors Work to Overcome a Long Documented Bias
PEMAHAMAN TERHADAP IBADAH HAJI DAN UMRAH
Pemahaman dan penguasaan calon jamaah haji (calhaj) secara umum terhadap manasik dan permasalahan haji masih rendah. Kondisi ini terjadi karena sebagian besar calhaj tidak memiliki latar belakang pendidikan agama yang kuat. Hal ini disampaikan Ketua Umum Forum Komunikasi Kelompok Bimbingan Ibadah Haji (FK KBIH) KH Muchtar Ilyas, kepada Republika, Kamis (22/9). Dikatakan, para calhaj umumnya berasal dari kalangan awam yang kurang mendalami syariat, kendati mereka memiliki semangat berhaji yang tinggi. Dalam hal ini, kondisi calhaj tidak bisa disamakan dengan santri ataupun siswa yang mengenyam pendidikan agama, baik di madrasah ataupun pesantren. Di kedua lembaga itu, manasik haji menjadi mata pelajaran. Selain kurang menguasai manasik, lanjut Muchtar, tak sedikit calhaj yang belum mampu membaca Alquran. Syariatnya masih lemah. Karena itu, Muchtar melihat perlunya intensifikasi penyuluhan manasik secara berkesinambungan. Artinya, pembekalan itu tak hanya diberikan menjelang musim haji. Ia membandingkan dengan penataran yang dilakukan oleh sejumlah negara Islam. Turki, misalnya, menggelar pelatihan selama dua tahun bagi para calhaj. Menurutnya, konsep serupa bisa diterapkan di Indonesia. Mengingat, ada indikasi para penyuluh agama dan pegawai Kantor Urusan Agama pun belum menguasai manasik. Peran ini, katanya, bisa disempurnakan oleh KBIH yang kini berjumlah sekitar 2.500 lembaga. Fikih haji Terkait hal ini, Ketua Majelis Ulama Indonesia (MUI) Ma uf Amin memandang perlu memberikan panduan bagi para calhaj. Salah satunya melalui penerbitan buku yang merangkum persoalan-persoalan hukum haji yang aktual. Diakui, buku-buku haji telah banyak beredar, tetapi produk buku yang dikeluarkan oleh lembaga yang berkompeten belum ditemukan. Ma uf mengatakan, buku ini diharapkan mampu memberikan aspek kenyamanan syariat sekaligus menghilangkan kegamangan jamaah akibat ragam perbedaan pendapat. Di antara persoalan yang kerap diperdebatkan yaitu permasalahan yang muncul akibat kebijakan dan pembangunan oleh Pemerintah Arab Saudi.
Ghostly Voices From Thomas Edisonís Dolls Can Now Be Heard
Though Robin and Joan Rolfs owned two rare talking dolls manufactured by Thomas Edison’s phonograph company in 1890, they did not dare play the wax cylinder records tucked inside each one.
The Rolfses, longtime collectors of Edison phonographs, knew that if they turned the cranks on the dolls’ backs, the steel phonograph needle might damage or destroy the grooves of the hollow, ring-shaped cylinder. And so for years, the dolls sat side by side inside a display cabinet, bearers of a message from the dawn of sound recording that nobody could hear.
In 1890, Edison’s dolls were a flop; production lasted only six weeks. Children found them difficult to operate and more scary than cuddly. The recordings inside, which featured snippets of nursery rhymes, wore out quickly.
Yet sound historians say the cylinders were the first entertainment records ever made, and the young girls hired to recite the rhymes were the world’s first recording artists.
Year after year, the Rolfses asked experts if there might be a safe way to play the recordings. Then a government laboratory developed a method to play fragile records without touching them.
The technique relies on a microscope to create images of the grooves in exquisite detail. A computer approximates — with great accuracy — the sounds that would have been created by a needle moving through those grooves.
In 2014, the technology was made available for the first time outside the laboratory.
“The fear all along is that we don’t want to damage these records. We don’t want to put a stylus on them,” said Jerry Fabris, the curator of the Thomas Edison Historical Park in West Orange, N.J. “Now we have the technology to play them safely.”
Last month, the Historical Park posted online three never-before-heard Edison doll recordings, including the two from the Rolfses’ collection. “There are probably more out there, and we’re hoping people will now get them digitized,” Mr. Fabris said.
The technology, which is known as Irene (Image, Reconstruct, Erase Noise, Etc.), was developed by the particle physicist Carl Haber and the engineer Earl Cornell at Lawrence Berkeley. Irene extracts sound from cylinder and disk records. It can also reconstruct audio from recordings so badly damaged they were deemed unplayable.
“We are now hearing sounds from history that I did not expect to hear in my lifetime,” Mr. Fabris said.
The Rolfses said they were not sure what to expect in August when they carefully packed their two Edison doll cylinders, still attached to their motors, and drove from their home in Hortonville, Wis., to the National Document Conservation Center in Andover, Mass. The center had recently acquired Irene technology.
Cylinders carry sound in a spiral groove cut by a phonograph recording needle that vibrates up and down, creating a surface made of tiny hills and valleys. In the Irene set-up, a microscope perched above the shaft takes thousands of high-resolution images of small sections of the grooves.
Stitched together, the images provide a topographic map of the cylinder’s surface, charting changes in depth as small as one five-hundredth the thickness of a human hair. Pitch, volume and timbre are all encoded in the hills and valleys and the speed at which the record is played.
At the conservation center, the preservation specialist Mason Vander Lugt attached one of the cylinders to the end of a rotating shaft. Huddled around a computer screen, the Rolfses first saw the wiggly waveform generated by Irene. Then came the digital audio. The words were at first indistinct, but as Mr. Lugt filtered out more of the noise, the rhyme became clearer.
Recently, the conservation center turned up another surprise.
In 2010, the Woody Guthrie Foundation received 18 oversize phonograph disks from an anonymous donor. No one knew if any of the dirt-stained recordings featured Guthrie, but Tiffany Colannino, then the foundation’s archivist, had stored them unplayed until she heard about Irene.
Last fall, the center extracted audio from one of the records, labeled “Jam Session 9” and emailed the digital file to Ms. Colannino.
“I was just sitting in my dining room, and the next thing I know, I’m hearing Woody,” she said. In between solo performances of “Ladies Auxiliary,” “Jesus Christ,” and “Dead or Alive,” Guthrie tells jokes, offers some back story, and makes the audience laugh. “It is quintessential Guthrie,” Ms. Colannino said.
The Rolfses’ dolls are back in the display cabinet in Wisconsin. But with audio stored on several computers, they now have a permanent voice.